condition that describes limited motion of the big toe joint. This limitation in motion is caused by jamming of the big toe into the 1st metatarsal bone, thereby inhibiting the ability to bend the big toe without pain. This condition occurs at the 1st metatarsal-phalangeal joint (1st MTPJ), which is the joint between the hallux and 1st metatarsal. As the hallux and metatarsal move in an abnormal relationship they do not glide they now scrape against each other with uneven and excessive forces. When this occurs extra bone formations develop, called spurs or osteophytes. These appear in order to disperse the force generated from the friction. Unfortunately, this extra bone leads to more pain and further limitation to the joint motion.
The condition can eventually progress to a degenerative arthritic disease called hallux rigidus. At this stage, the motion at the joint approches zero degrees. In a final stage fusion or bone bridging across the joint occurs. Further advancment of this condition can lead to pain in other parts of the lower extremity. This may occur because other muscles, bones and joints will be forced to compensate or function abnormally to make up for the lack of motion of the big toe. Watch video in link below
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This condition can be caused by a number of factors. Some people have biomechanical abnormalities, such as flat feet, that can lead to imbalances that cause jamming and rubbing of the hallux against the metatarsal. Traumatic events like turf toe injuries or simply accidental injury of the big toe can lead to this condition as well. Wearing shoegear such as high heels can increase the risk of occurrence. Hereditary arthritic conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, can also be the inciting factor. Inflammatory joint conditions such as gout can lead to deformity at this joint as well.
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